Caffeine

Caffeine is one of the most tested ergogenic aids.  Having over 70 good studies related to athletic performance; caffeine is a well-known stimulant that can enhance your workout in many ways. 

 

It boosts strength and fatigue tolerance, decreases perceived effort (which greatly improved exercise performance), increases power output, and produces a worthwhile enhancement of short-term endurance performance.  It activates the nervous system to improve focus and energy while reducing tiredness and also increases thermogenesis which helps to burn calories.

Clinically effective dosages range between 3-6mg/kg of body-weight and Primed Intensity contains 350mg of caffeine per serving.

L-Theanine

L-theanine is an amino acid found primarily in tea and while it is a popular standalone supplement, it has a special synergistic relationship with caffeine

 

L-theanine can delay exercise-induced fatigue and promote nitric oxide production for improved blood flow and oxygen delivery to your muscles; however, L-theanine's unique contribution is its ability to affect brain function.  It can reduce mental and physical stress, improve focus, improve overall cognition, improve mood and improve mental performance.

If that wasn't enough, it has also been shown to improve sleep quality and boost immune function.

Most studies show benefits in the range of 100-200mg of L-theanine but when taken with caffeine the ratio is closer to 1:1.  Primed Intensity contains 300mg of L-theanine per serving.

 
 

Betaine

Betaine is an amino acid found in various foods such as beets.  While research indicates that betaine supplementation can improve liver function and digestion and also reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, it was included in Primed Intensity for its ability to improve muscle performance, specifically muscle power, endurance, and muscle growth acceleration and fat loss

 

Research shows that 2-3 grams may be used to increase physical performance and Primed Intensity delivers 2.5 grams per serving.

Beta-Alanine

Primed Intensity uses Carnosyn® beta-alanine and provides a clinically effective dosage of 3.6 grams per serving.  Scientific studies prove that beta-alanine increases the working capacity of muscles if you take at least 90 grams over a 28-day period (an average of 3.2 grams per day).

Creatine

Creatine is a natural compound made up of amino acids and is among the most well-researched and effective athletic supplements.  Creatine is essential in regenerating ATP (the most basic unit of cellular energy) and can rapidly produce energy during activity to enhance exercise performance as well as help you to more quickly gain muscle and strength.  With a vast amount of readily available studies done on creatine, here are a select handful to further show the benefits of creatine:

  1. Creatine monohydrate supplementation on lower-limb muscle power

  2. Creatine supplementation on muscle power output in elite youth soccer players

  3. Effect of creatine supplementation on jumping performance in elite volleyball players

  4. Effects of creatine supplementation on anaerobic capacity of elite wrestlers

  5. Creatine supplementation improves the anaerobic performance of elite junior fin swimmers

It is relatively standard protocol to supplement with 5 grams of creatine (Monohydrate) daily, and Primed Intensity offers just that.

 
 

L-Citrulline DL-Malate 2:1

L-citrulline is a non-essential amino acid combined with malic acid which is a natural substance found in many fruits that is involved in the creation of cellular energy and may confer additional athletic and health benefits.

Many athletes supplement with this as it promotes aerobic energy production, enhances athletic anaerobic performance and decreases muscle soreness and reduces time to exhaustion.  Other benefits include improved arterial health and reduced blood pressure, improved erection hardness, and reducing free radicals (atoms that cause damage to cells).

While both L-citrulline and L-arginine share similar physiological mechanisms, L-citrulline is often chosen over L-arginine as it is better absorbed and L-arginine can have unreliable results.  For exercise performance, research predominately used clinical dosages of 6-8 grams of citrulline malate per day and Primed Intensity comes through at 7 grams per serving.

Red Spinach Extract​ (Amaranthus Dubius)

Red Spinach Extract (RSE) is one of the richest sources of nitrate in nature and our source of RSE delivers the nitrate, phytonutrients, vitamins, and minerals with a standardized 9% concentration of nitrate.

 

Studies have shown the effects of nitrate supplementation and how it can reduce the O2 cost of exercise and enhance tolerance to high-intensity exercise.  RSE and nitrates have also been shown to increase ventilatory threshold (the level of exercise intensity where you feel that you can’t get as much air as your body needs). 

RSE in brief:

  • Increased VO2max and modulate in serum lactate levels

  • Nitric Oxide (NO) promotes vasodilation and increased blood flow

  • Enhanced exercise capacity

  • Rich in protein and potassium

Primed Intensity delivers 1 gram of RSE per serving.

 

Taurine

Taurine is an organic acid found in foods that is a heart and blood healthy agent conferring a wide range of health benefits and may help to enhance exercise performance. 

Taurine supplementation has been shown to improve performance and decrease muscle damage and oxidative stress (without decreasing inflammation) and has shown benefits in 3k running time trials as well as a reduction in muscle soreness, but there have also been some conflicting studies which show little to no improvement.

 

Taurine also plays an important role in sleep, though there is a lack of human studies to determine if supplementation with taurine benefits sleep further.  In individuals with previous heart damage, taurine supplementation improves functional capacity as well as providing anti-inflammatory and protective effects.

These studies show that benefits can be seen over the course of eight weeks when dosed at 1.5 grams daily and while may not consider this a 'must have' until further successful research has been shown, we see no reason not to play it safe and include 1.8 grams per serving in Primed Intensity.

Natural Alternatives International (NAI) is the owner of patents listed on www.carnosyn.com and registered trademark CarnoSyn®.

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